Aleut, Alutiiq, Athabascan and Yup’ik Eskimos have made Bristol Bay their home for the past 10,000 years. Just over 200 years ago, the explorer Captain Cook named the area “Bristol Bay” in honor of an English Admiral. The name stuck. Even though the land is referenced by a modern name, residents of Bristol Bay continue to observe the traditions, languages and subsistence ways of their ancestors—along with influences from explorers and fur traders, missionaries, commercial fishermen and aviators.

The Native cultures of Bristol Bay may have distinct languages and traditions, but they share a deep connection with the land and waters of the region. Traditional aspects of Bristol Bay culture can be linked back to the geography of where each Native group lived. The Aleut/ Alutiiq peoples of the coast found that the sea provided for most of their needs. This influenced their cultural emphasis on boatmaking and sailing. Yup’iks on the Bristol Bay side of the Alaska Peninsula were hunters and fishermen who used gill nets, fish nets, harpoons, spears, and weirs to survive. The Dena’ina/Athabascans lived in lake country and enjoyed an abundant diet of salmon, moose and caribou. They were also canoe builders, which was essential for travel.

Subsistence lifestyle

The Native peoples of Bristol Bay have always cultivated a close connection to the land­­. More than a simple activity, subsistence is an entire lifestyle. In Yup’ik, they call it Yuuyaraq, the Way of Life.

Long ago, hunting wildlife, catching fish and gathering edible plants and berries were time-intensive skills, critical to survival. A subsistence lifestyle today still requires an investment of time and money, and is still seen as an important value. Passing knowledge and traditions on to younger generations is important for Elders, who see spiritual benefits from a connection to the land, and health benefits from natural foods and the physical activity associated with getting them.

Perhaps the most important subsistence activity centers around salmon, making the people of Bristol Bay one of the few remaining salmon-based cultures on Earth.